Carbohydrates obtained by the body from eating bread, potatoes, rice, cakes and many other foods, type 2 diabetes mellitus disintegrate and degrade gradually. This decomposition and decomposition begins in the stomach, then continues in the duodenum and in the small intestine. Produced by the process of disintegration and decomposition. These range of sugars (carbohydrates – carbohydrates) are absorbed into the blood circulation.
- Pancreas, which are called beta cells, are very sensitive to elevated blood sugar levels and secrete the insulin hormone.
- Insulin is an essential bridge for the entry of glucose, glucose, into the muscles where it is used as an energy source, and into fat and liver tissue where it is stored.
- Glucose also reaches the brain, too, but without the help of insulin.
In the pancreas, another type of cell is the alpha cells, which secrete another hormone called Glucagon.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
This hormone causes the release of sugar from the liver and activates the action of other hormones that hinder the work of insulin.
The balance between these two hormones (insulin and glucagon) keeps the blood glucose level stable and avoids sharp changes. Weight gainers who exercise frequently need a small amount of insulin to balance the work of glucose that reaches the blood. The more obese and less physically fit, the greater the amount of insulin needed to treat a similar amount of glucose in the blood. This condition is called “insulin resistance”
When beta cells in the pancreas become damaged, the amount of insulin secreted gradually decreases, and this process continues for many years. If this condition is associated with insulin resistance, the combination of a small amount of insulin and a low level of efficacy leads to a deviation from the proper level of glucose (sugar) in the blood, in which case the person is defined as having diabetes.
How does diabetes affect blood sugar levels?
There are two Types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes
Is a disease in which the immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas, for unknown reasons and has not been identified, so far. In boys, this destruction takes place quickly and lasts from a few weeks to a few years. In adults, it may last for many years. Many people who develop type 1 diabetes at an advanced age are mistakenly diagnosed as type 2 diabetes,
Type 2 diabetes
Is a disease in which pancreatic beta cells are destroyed and destroyed for genetic reasons, most likely by external factors? This process is very slow and will last for decades. The risk of having a healthy weight and good physical fitness is low, even if it has a drop in insulin secretion. The risk of having a physically inactive person with diabetes is high because they are more likely to have insulin resistance and diabetes. Statistics show that the number of people with type 2 diabetes in the world has increased dramatically in recent decades, reaching 150 million people and is expected to rise to 330 million people with diabetes until 2025
Main reasons for this sharp rise in diabetes
ObesityPhysical inactivityChanges in food types Common foods today include ready-made foods that cause diabetes, being rich in fats and sugars that are readily absorbed into the blood, leading to increased insulin resistance.
Diabetes can lead to:
The gradual rise in blood pressure Disturbances in blood lipids, especially triglyceride, Low-density lipoprotein (HDL-HDL). Overall, diabetic patients have distinct damage: in the kidneys, in the retina and in the nervous system. Symptoms of diabetes vary depending on the type of diabetes.
Occasionally, people with prediabetes or gestational diabetes may not have any symptoms at all. Or they may experience some symptoms of type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes symptoms together.
Symptoms of Diabetes
ThirstUrinating a lot, at close timesVery severe hungerLow weight for unclear and unknown reasonsFatigueBlurred visionHealing (healing) wounds slowlyFrequent infections in the gums, skin, vagina or urinary bladder.
Type 1 diabetes may affect people at any age, but it often appears in childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, the most corporate type, can occur at any age and can be banned and shunned, often.
Causes and risk factors for diabetes
Learn about the causes and risk factors for diabetes by types:
Type 1 diabetes factors
In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks and damages the cells responsible for insulin secretion in the pancreas, rather than attacking and destroying harmful bacteria and/or viruses, as it normally does. As a result, the body remains with a small amount of insulin, or without insulin at all. Type 2 diabetes mellitus In this case, the sugar accumulates and accumulates in the circulatory system, rather than being distributed to different cells in the body. So far, the true cause of type 1 diabetes is not known, but family history seems to play an important role.
The risk of type 1 diabetes increases in people whose parents, siblings, and siblings have diabetes. There are also additional factors that may be causing diabetes, such as exposure to viral diseases.
Type II diabetes factors
In people with “diabetes predispositions” that may worsen and become type 2 diabetes, cells resist the effect of insulin while the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance. In these cases, the sugar accumulates and accumulates in the circulatory system rather than distributed to the cells and reaches them in various organs of the body.
The direct cause of these cases is still unknown, but excess fat – especially in the abdomen – and physical inactivity appear to be important factors. Type 2 diabetes mellitus Researchers are still looking for a real and accurate answer to the question: Why do “diabetic predispositions” and type 2 diabetes affect specific individuals, alone? However, there are several factors that clearly increase the risk of diabetes.
Factors of gestational diabetes
During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones that support and support a pregnancy. In the second and third trimester, the placenta grows and produces large amounts of these hormones, which make insulin more difficult and make it more difficult. In normal cases, the pancreas releases a reaction that is to produce an extra amount of insulin to overcome that resistance. But the pancreas sometimes fails to keep up with the pace, resulting in very little glucose in the cells, while a large amount of glucose accumulates and accumulates in the bloodstream. Thus gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) is formed.
Complications of Diabetes
The complications of diabetes vary depending on the type of diabetes.
Type I and II diabetes complications
Short-term complications of type I and II diabetes require immediate treatment. Such cases, which are not immediately treated, may lead to convulsions and coma. HyperglycemiaHigh level of ketones in the urine (diabetic ketoacidosis)Hypoglycemia. Type 2 diabetes mellitus The long-term complications of diabetes are gradual. The risk of complications increases with diabetes at a younger age and those who are not keen to balance blood sugar.
In the end, diabetes complications can lead to disability or even death. Cardiovascular disease (in the heart and blood vessels) Damage to the nerves (neuropathy – Neuropathy) Damage to the kidneys (nephropathy) Damage to the eyes Damage to the soles of the feet Diseases in the skin and in the mouth Problems in bones and joints.
There are many blood tests, which can diagnose the symptoms of type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes symptoms, including Randomized blood glucose test. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Check the level of diabetes in the blood during fasting. If a person is diagnosed with diabetes, according to the results of the tests, it is possible that the doctor will decide to conduct additional tests to determine the type of diabetes (type I diabetes or type II diabetes), in order to choose the treatment of diabetes appropriate and effective, Treatment varies from type of diabetes to another.
Screening tests for gestational diabetes
Tests for gestational diabetes screening are an integral part of normal, routine tests in pregnancy. Most medical professionals are advised to undergo a blood test for diabetes called the Glucose Challenge Test. Which occurs during pregnancy, between the 24th week and the 28th week of pregnancy, or earlier in women most at risk of gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is important. The “glucose challenge test” begins by drinking sugar syrup. An hour later, a blood test is performed to measure the blood glucose level (concentration). If diabetes in the blood is higher than 140 mg / dL (mg/dl), this usually indicates gestational diabetes.
However, in most cases, there is a need to repeat the test in order to confirm a diabetes diagnosis. In preparation for the re-examination, the pregnant woman undergoing the examination should fast throughout the night be preceding the examination. Type 2 diabetes mellitus Here, once again, a sweet-tasting solution that contains a higher concentration of glucose is used this time, and the blood glucose level is measured every hour, over three hours.
Screening for “diabetes predispositions“
The American College of Endocrinology usually recommends screening for “diabetics” for anyone with a family history of type 2 diabetes, for those who are overweight or have metabolic syndrome. Women who have had gestational diabetes in the past should also be screened. Your doctor may recommend one of the following two tests to diagnose “pre-diabetes”: ·
- Blood glucose during fasting·
- Glucose tolerance test.
Treatment of diabetes
Treatment of type 2 diabetes treatment of diabetes varies from person to person, depending on the individual laboratory tests performed by each patient and the values of glucose (sugar) in their blood. It should be noted that according to the complications of diabetes that we have previously presented, the risk of microvascular and macrovascular diseases is high when the concentration of sugar in the blood is higher over long periods of the disease. As well as cardiovascular diseases, which are also more serious as the patient’s age is greater and the duration of diabetes is greater. That is why we need to treat this group seriously and balance the glucose concentration values in the blood as much as possible.
Treatment in this group of people should include prevention of severe hypoglycemia, or a severe drop in blood circulation (hypotension). As well as attention to the overall health of the patient and the total drugs that are treated so that it is possible to suffer from diabetes more than a disease in addition to diabetes.
We can divide the treatment of diabetes into several sections:
1. Lifestyle changes
Healthy and appropriate nutrition for this category of patients.The physical exercise recommended by the treating physicians, which is suitable for each patient in particular, Type 2 diabetes mellitus according to the total of the diseases he suffers, which can affect the exercise of physical exercise regularly and properly such as heart disease, physical disabilities and other diseases.Weight reduction and BMI which will help the body in relieving the insulin resistance that causes diabetes.
2 – Treatment by means of oral medications Metformin
It is a primary treatment line for obese people. This medicine works by inhibiting/inhibiting the production of glucose in the liver, which reduces blood glucose concentration. One of the known side effects of this drug is the reduction in weight and effects on the digestive system. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is system that People suffering from chronic renal failure disease may have this type of medication that is both inappropriate and harmful.
A drug that helps to secrete insulin in the body by changes in the electrical charge of the membrane of cells that secrete insulin. Common and common side effects of these drugs are gaining excess weight and a sharp drop in glucose concentration (hypoglycemia). Elderly people exposed to repeated episodes of severe hypoglycemia should be cautious about taking these medications, which may be inappropriate for them.
This type of medication improves the resistance of insulin in the body, and may also stimulate the secretion of insulin.
These drugs work similarly to sulfanyl-or medicines. A known side effect of this class of drugs is gaining excess weight.
These drugs act by slowing the absorption of sugar in the digestive system. One of the known side effects of this class of drugs is abdominal cramping (bloating) and diarrhea.
These drugs help regulate the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the body. In general, these drugs are not strong and are not very effective in reducing Hb1C as significantly as other drugs. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is worth mentioning that these drugs do not increase weight and also not the high risk of a sharp decline in the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the body.
These drugs act by the role of peptides in the digestive system to balance blood glucose concentration, including GLP-1. One of the known side effects of this medicine is weight loss, vomiting, nausea and diarrhea.
3 – Treatment of diabetes by injection Insulin
Treatment with insulin has become more common in recent times, despite the refusal of many patients to accept treatment by injection on a daily basis.
Insulin therapy is divided into two types
Long-acting insulin therapy (long-acting), a daily injection that provides the body with the amount of basal insulin. Which makes it difficult for the patient to accept treatment more due to the need to inject more than once a day. This type of treatment can be described with other oral medications to balance the disease more effectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Short-acting insulin, which is taken directly after daily meals, is usually matched to the amount of short-acting insulin followed.
4- Monitor the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood
Controlling the concentration of glucose in the blood, especially in the morning, is important and usually gives us information about balancing the disease in those patients. Doctors are also interested in these recordings to determine appropriate treatment for patients and the need to add other drugs to better balance the disease. In addition to direct treatment to reduce the concentration of glucose in the blood, there is no less important treatment, which means reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, which includes: Minimize smoking as much as possible. Sometimes there are organized group sessions where doctors are advised to help quit smoking:
- Treatment of hypertension
- Treatment of hyperlipidemia
- Treatment with aspirin as mentioned before, living healthy and healthy in terms of food and sports.